The introduction of ArcGIS 10

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ArcGIS provides a scalable application - can be tailored to the abilities and needs of its users - which could be implemented for single users as well as multiusers in desktop applications, servers, and internet. ArcGIS is a collection of 10 software products GIS (Geographic Information System) to build a comprehensive GIS applications. ArcGIS 10 can dbagi into several parts:



  • ArcGIS Desktop: desktop-based GIS applications.
  • ArcGIS Engine: various components to create their own GIS applications.
  • Server GIS: a collection of server-based GIS applications (ArcSDE, ArcIMS, ArcGIS Server).
  • Mobile GIS: GIS applications for mobile devices (ArcPad).
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ArcGIS Desktop is one part of 10 is used for ArcGIS mapping, analysis, editing, data management, visualization, and geoprocessing. ArcGIS Desktop consists of several applications: ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox, ArcGlobe, ArcScene, ModelBuilder. ArcGIS Desktop has three functional levels: ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo - which can be customized according to user's needs and abilities.

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Comparison of the ability level of ArcView, ArcEditor, ArcInfo.
ArcGIS can menngakses data in various formats and using a multi-database and data-based files simultaneously. Data files are backed-based ArcGIS include: coverages, shapefile, Grids, TIN, images, etc.. Moreover, in line with technological advances, developing ArcGIS geodatabase format for the storage of spatial data. Geodatabase using relational database technology for spatial data management so that the various advantages of RDBMS (Relational DataBase Management System) can be applied in spatial data management.

There are two types of Geodatabase: Geodatabase and Personal Geodatabase multiusers. Personal Geodatabase is used to store data that is relatively small (max.2GB), using a Microsoft Access database, a single-user editing. ArcSDE geodatabase multiusers needs and work with various models of DBMS (IBM DB2, Informix, Oracle, and SQL Server), a very large storage capacity, multiusers editing.
ArcGIS Desktop has three frequently used applications: ArcCatalog, ArcMap, ArcToolbox.

  • ArcCatalog: functions to access and manage data management (non-spatial data and spatial) with ease. Users can search for desired data, display, view, or create metadata. ArcCatalog can also connect an external database (MS Access, SQL Server, Oracle, etc.) with the data already held.
  • ArcMap: designed for data display, editing, printing high-quality maps and perform spatial analysis.
  • ArcToolbox: contains tools (tools) for various geoprocessing as well as conversion between data formats.





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Spatial Data Geographic Information System (GIS) using ArcGIS

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Most of the data to be handled in a GIS is a spatial data is a geographic data-oriented, have a particular coordinate system as the basic reference and has two essential parts that make it different from other data, the location information (spatial) and descriptive information (attributes) that described below:


  • Location information (spatial), corresponds to a coordinate either geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) and the XYZ coordinates, including the datum and projection information.
  • Descriptive information (attributes) or non-spatial information, a location that has some information related thereto, for example: type of vegetation, population, area, zip code, and so forth.
Format and Spatial Data Sources

In a simple format in the form of computer language and code storage means different data between files with one another. In GIS, spatial data can be represented in two formats, namely:
  • Vector Data
Data vector is represented in the form of the earth into a collection of lines, area (the area bounded by a line that begins and ends at the same point), and point nodes (the point of intersection between two lines).







  • Raster data
Raster data is the data generated from the system of Remote Sensing. On raster data, geographic object is represented as a grid cell structure called a pixel (picture element).

On raster data, the resolution (visual definition) depends on its pixel size. In other words, describe the size of the actual pixel resolution in the earth's surface represented by each pixel in the image. The smaller the size of the Earth's surface is represented by a single cell, the higher the resolution. Raster data is very good to represent the limits of the change gradually, such as soil type, soil moisture, vegetation, soil temperature and so on. The main limitation of raster data is the large size of the file; the higher its resolution grid, the greater the file size and highly dependent on the hardware available Capacity.

SIG is one of the requirements of spatial data, which can be obtained from several sources, among others:
  • Analog map
Analog maps (including topographic maps, soil maps, etc.) that maps in printed form. In general, analog maps made ​​with cartographic techniques, are likely to have such a reference spatial coordinates, scale, cardinal directions and so forth. In stages as the purposes of GIS data sources, map analog converted to digital maps in raster format to be converted into vector format via dijitasi process so as to show the actual coordinates on the surface of the earth.
  • Remote Sensing Data Systems
Remote Sensing Data (such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs and so on), is the most important data sources for GIS because ketersediaanya periodically and cover a specific area. With a variety of satellites in space with their respective specifications, we can obtain various types of satellite imagery for various purposes of use. This data is usually represented in raster format.
  • Field Measurement Results Data
Field measurement data generated by a separate calculation technique, in general, this data is a source of attribute data eg administrative boundaries, land ownership boundaries, parcel boundaries, limits of forest concessions and others.
  • Data GPS (Global Positioning System)
GPS technology provides an important breakthrough in providing data for GIS. The higher the accuracy of GPS measurements to the development of technology. This data is usually represented in vector format. Discussion of the GPS will be explained hereinafter.


Data Acquisition Method / Geographic Information


  1. Field survey: physical measurement (land marks), sampling (water pollution), non-physical data collection (data social, political, economic and cultural).
  2. Census: the approach of questionnaires, interviews and observations; national data collection and periodic (census population, census of land holdings).
  3. Statistics: the periodic method of data collection / per-interval-time at the station of observation and analysis of the geographic data, eg rainfall data.
  4. Tracking: a way of collecting data in a particular period for purposes of monitoring or observation of the changes, eg, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, river water discharge.
  5. Remote sensing (remote sensing): a science and art to obtain information of an object, area or phenomenon through the analysis of sensor data obtained from observers without direct contact with the object, area or phenomenon observed

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Definition of Geographic Information Systems

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Geographic Information System (Geographic Information System / GIS) hereinafter referred to as GIS is a computer based information system used to process and store data or geographic information (Aronoff, 1989).
GIS in general terms as follows:

"A component consisting of hardware, software, geographic data and human resources to work together effectively to input, store, repair, update, manage, manipulate, integrate, analyze and display data in a geographic-based information".

GIS has the ability to connect a variety of data at a given point on earth, combine, analyze and finally map the results. The data will be processed in a GIS spatial data is a geographically-oriented data and a location that has a specific coordinate system, as a basic reference. So that the application of GIS can answer some questions such as: location, condition, trends, patterns and modeling. Ability is what distinguishes GIS from other information systems.

components of GIS

There are various definitions of the experts about the SIG, the SIG is essentially a system for managing, storing, processing, analysis and views (display) the data associated with the earth's surface. Such systems need to be able to operate the hardware (hardware) and software (software) are also human beings who operate them (brainware). In detail, the SIG may operate require the following components:

Components of GIS images
People who run the system includes operate, develop even memperolehmanfaat of the system. Categories of people who are part of this SIG is diverse, for example, operators, analysts, programmers, database administrators and even stakeholders.
Application is a collection of procedures used to process data into information. For example, the sum, classification, rotation, geometry correction, query, overlay, buffer, join table and so on.
The data can be used in GIS graphic data and attribute data. Graphic data / spatial data is a representation of the phenomenon of the earth's surface that has a reference (coordinate) prevalent form of maps, aerial photos, satellite imagery and so on, or the result of the interpretation of these data. While the data attributes such as population census data, survey notes, other statistical data. Collection of data in large quantities can be compiled into a database. So well known in the GIS database, commonly known as a spatial database (spatial database).
GIS software is tailor-made computer program and has a capacity management, storage, processing, analysis and delivery of spatial data.
The hardware is a set of computers that can support the operation of the software used. The hardware also includes a scanner, digitizer, GPS, printer and plotter.
(John E. Harmon, Steven J. Anderson. 2003)
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Cara Klaim Blog di Technorati

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Wah ternyata technorati telah mengubah kebijakannya perihal cara mengklaim blog. Sekarang pengklaiman blog anda harus menunggu evaluasi dari team technorati, tidak seperti dulu yang lebih gampang dan cepat.

Adapun cara-caranya adalah sebagai berikut :

1. Login ke Technorati

2. Klik pada account name anda, yang terletak di pojok kanan atas

cara claim blog

3. Isikan alamat blog anda pada Start a blog claim
cara claim blog

4. Isi data-data detail blog anda yang mau diklaim
cara claim blog

5. Setelah langkah-langkah di atas selesai, Blog anda akan dievaluasi dan nantikanlah dengan sabar hingga blog anda diterima.
cara claim blog

6. Jika Blog anda diterima, maka anda akan menerima sebuah email yang berisi kode (disebut claim token) seperti ini UA43X7WRUQZN. Klik link pada email tersebut dan lakukan sesuai prosedur yang diminta.
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FEATURING GEO LINK TO IMAGE IN ER Mapper 7

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In the ER Mapper application, the term means GeoLink make connections between two or more images in a different window. GeoLink mode should be in the same projection system. ER Mapper provides GeoLink modes include: Window mode is the relationship of two or more different image in the display window on the windows the same extent.

Screen Mode is the relationship between the image where the image as a master, while the other image relative to him.


a. GeoLink to Window

GeoLink to window provides an easy to observe some of the images that have the same coverage area, or nearly the same at the same time in separate windows, but with the same scale.
  • To provide first started, two different image data in the same projection system (eg landsat_indonesia.ecw and pangrango_001_geo.ecw)
  • Open a new window by clicking the open fi twice to display two windows
  • Click to load the data (Landsat indonesia.ecw) the unity window, and click to load the data (pangrango_001_geo.ecw).
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  • For the window to one and the second window, right-click and then click Quick Zoom | Set GeoLink to Window to create a window mode.
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  • Two windows are connected to each other, and the addition can be done to make GeoLink window window as much as possible.
b. GeoLink to Screen

GeoLink GeoLink to Screen is a system in which one image is displayed with a particular viewing position, while the other images will have the same position and tied with the first image window. So GeoLink to screen this will have a display as an overlay, but with separate layers for different window for each image.

  • To provide first started, two different image data in the same projection system (eg landsat_indonesia.ecw and pangrango_001_geo.ecw)
  • Open a new window by clicking the open fi twice to display two windows
  • Click to load the data (Landsat indonesia.ecw) the unity window, and click to load the data (pangrango_001_geo.ecw).
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  • For the window to one and the second window, right-click and then click Quick Zoom | Set GeoLink to Screen for making screen mode.
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  • Two windows are connected to each other, and can be done to make GeoLink addition of window screen as much as possible.
Overlay and Algorithms

Algorithm is the basic building within ER Mapper algorithm stores all the information necessary to display the data as an image. The information stored in an algorithm includes a data source, the colors used for display, data processing steps in detail. An algorithm is a revolutionary concept that separates the data from data processing. All data integration, data processing options other files contained in the algorithm. All this is created and edited by ER Mapper, ER Mapper which contain different types of data processing algorithms.
  • Please open the file that has been available (eg Landsat indonesia.ecw)
  • Open the window by clicking the algorithm (RGB): RGB, so the image appears like this
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  • Click the button text [RGB] RGB to activate the layer file
  • Click the paste to duplicate the layer so that the display becomes as shown below
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  • Click on the topmost layer (as shown in the figure above) then click the blue layer to loading new data, and select the file you want the dioverlay (eg pangrango_001_geo.ecw).
  • Storing files in the. Alx, for example, is stored with the name citra1.alg.
  • To open the algorithm, from the menu bar select File, then select Open, select the name of the algorithm are shown.
TWO IMAGE mosaic
  • Open the two images in a different window so as to produce images like this
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  • On one of the select window, window display lights up blue. Then click the [RGB] RGB to open the display algorithm.
  • Activate the text [RGB] RGB and the new window click to copy the file layer.
  • Then turn on the only window, and click the [RGB] RGB to display algorithm.
  • Click the paste icon to paste the previous file layer, and zoom all datasets
  • Will appear as below

  • Foto
  • Do file storage, can be in the form. ALG, res, tiff, or ECw.
Or can also use the following steps:
  • Make sure the file you want to dimosaik be in one folder and have the same projection system.
  • Click blur (image display and mosaic wizard) on the ER Mapper window.
  • Enter any of the files that will dimosaik by clicking open the file and activate the Mosaic all files of this type and Manually set mosaic method.

  • Foto 
  • Click Next to move on.
  • - Enable Cell sizes, Types of data, Number of bands, and Coordinate Systems. Then click Next to start the process.

  • Foto
    Mosaic results will appear after it is complete.
  • If you want to vary the file to be in the mosaic, mosaic type, or otherwise, click on the option that appears to repeat the process.
  •  Foto
  • Click Finish to close the dialog box.
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View Map / image in the mosaic and map / image of the mosaic

















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HOW TO READ AND COORDINATE PIXEL VALUE

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  • To find out the value of pixel image, right-click on the image window and select the Cell Values ​​Profile
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  • Click on the image window, then the pixel value at that point will appear
  • The image has been geometrically corrected coordinate values​​. To display it, right-click on the image window and select Cell Coordinate.

  •    


  • Click on the image window, then the coordinates of the point will appear.



  • SAVING AND OPENING ALGORITHM

    Algorithm is the basic building within ER Mapper algorithm stores all the information necessary to display the data as an image. The information stored in an algorithm includes a data source, the colors used for display, data processing steps in detail. An algorithm is a revolutionary concept that separates the data from data processing. All data integration, data processing options other files contained in the algorithm. All this is created and edited by ER Mapper, ER Mapper which contain different types of data processing algorithms.

  • To keep the algorithm results, from the menu bar select File, then select Save As, type the name of the algorithm, algorithm or by clicking Save to save the algorithm directly or click the Save Algorithm As if to give a new name for an existing algorithm.
  • For example saved as rgb542.alg.
  • To open up the algorithm, from the menu bar select File, then select Open, select the name of the algorithm are shown.
  • In the image of the image will appear with the words    thereon. 542 rgb sentence indicates that the algorithm file being opened is rgb542.alg. while other signs have been described previously..

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FEATURING ON IMAGE TO MONITOR

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  • From the menu bar select File / New to create a blank display or click New
  • From the menu bar select View / Algorithm, to display the contents of the algorithms of the Window, or view previously created.
  • Algorithm box will appear and a new Window boxes as follows:
Foto
  • In the image window box there is written Algorithm Not Yet Saved ***
In the box there is no image because there is no image file is entered *** Signs show window / box is currently active or being elected, the number 3 indicates that the window box is first opened the box, this figure will increase by the amount of window boxes opened so that when we opened the box to the 15 it will display the number 15 on the display. Algorithm Not Yet Saved writing means that we open the display window is not already stored in the algorithm file (. ALG).

  • From the menu click on the image above algorithm under No word dataset to load the data to be displayed.
  • Will come out a new look, a box Raster Dataset
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  • Then select Data are shown mean we select the highlighted file and the box will close the Raster Dataset. . means we choose the file that the higlight and the box will not close the raster dataset. This Layer Only the phrase that follows the word OK and Apply tersebuut indicates that the command affects only the selected layer only but not for all the layers. is the command to show information from the dataset file which we will choose.
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  • When the data is original data, then the cell size x and y will be worth 1 meters. This value should we change the subject to Landsat-TM spatial resolution of 30 meters, ie by clicking Then it will appear :
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  • Then click on the new box will appear
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  • Then click on the new box will appear
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  • Fill in the option value of 30 X Dimension and Y dimension as the example above, then click OK.
  • Click Yes if there is a statement Save changes before closing the editor?
  • The values ​​of x and y cell size will change to 30 meters, and then click Cancel
  • After you select a data file, and then we determine what the layer will display the data. When you have selected, then the file name will appear on the city's algorithm.
  • shows the active layer and the selected file will be displayed on the proficiency level layer (the example above shows one band as the selected layer). By clicking the down arrow beside the text B1: Band 1 then it will appear around the layer that is on file (in this case is 7 iini band of Landsat-TM) as the example above.

    Foto
  • Set the type layer to be used to display data that has been loaded, multiple layer options provided are Pseudo, Red, Green, Blue, Intensity, Height, and others. To find out the type of layer can by right-clicking on the sentence Pseudo Layer.
  • Signs • indicate the type layer selected.
  • To display a combination of channel 542 for example, then make three layers, namely Red, Green, and Blue.
  • To show the classification results, it is made Class Display layer.
  • To display the Color Pseudo, Pseudo layer is made

  • Note:
  • To change the type layer right click on the layer to be replaced.
  • To mengduplikasi click Duplicate layer or layer copy then paste layer
  • To remove the layer click the layer cut
  • To turn off the layer, right click and then select Turn Off or click
  • Image and to raise and lower level layer.


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